Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary , Kerala


The Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary is a reservoir of tranquil greenery ensconced in a valley between the Annamalai ranges of Tamil Nadu and the Nelliampathy ranges of Kerala. The areas hilly and rocky, drained by several rivers, including the Parambikulam, the Sholayar and the Thekkedy.


Thickly forested with stands of bamboo, sandalwood, rosewood and teak, the sanctuary has some marshy land and scattered patches of grassland.

Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary,Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary Tamil Nadu,Parambikulam Sanctuary Tour Parambikulam was once home to some of south India's finest stands of teak. Little remains of the original teak forests, other than the famous Kannimari teak tree, the largest in Asia as most of these have now been replaced by teak plantations. The tree is about 5 km from Thunakadavu, and is one of Parambikulam's prime attractions.

There are two watchtowers one at Anappadi, 8km from Thunakadavu, and other at Zungam, 5km from Thunakadavu.

Parambikulam has one of the largest population of gaur (bison). It is also a home to elephants, sloth bears, wild boars, sambhars, chital tigers, panthers and crocodiles. There are also bonnet macaques, spectacled cobras, kraits, vipers, turtles, darters, little cormorants and black eagles.

Parambikulam is open throughout the year, but is best avoided during the monsoon. Between June and August, the monsoon rains lash, making hillsides unstable and causing slush, mosquitoes, drippy roofs and other nuisances. Boat cruises can be arranged in the Parambikulam Reservoir. The rest house of the state forest department at Thoonakkadavu, Thellikkal and Elathode offer comfortable lodging facilities. A tree - house in the reserved forest area in Thoonakkadavu has to be booked in advance.

Fauna

The sanctuary has a rich diversity of animal life including: Mammals 39 species, Amphibians 16 sp., Birds 268 sp., Reptiles 61 sp., Fish 47 sp., Insects 1049 sp. and Butterflies 124 sp.

* Mammals- Important mammals include: Lion-tailed Macaques, Nilgiri Tahr, elephants, Bengal tigers, panthers, Wild boar, Sambar, Bonnet Macaques, Nilgiri Langurs, Sloth Bears, Nilgiri Marten Small Travancore Flying Squirrel and Gaur.


* Reptiles- Reptiles of very high importance in Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary include: King cobra, Kerala sheildtail, Travancore kukri snake, Travancore wolf snake, Cochin cane turtle, Travancore tortoise, Indian day gecko and Western Ghats flying lizard. Others Important Reptiles are Indian rock python, Malabar pit viper, Travancore tortoise, South Indian forest ground gecko, South Indian rock lizard, Mountain skink, Mugger Crocodile, Varanus, Pond terapin, Chameleon and the snakes Spectacled Cobra, Krait, Green keelback, Olivaceous keelback, Western Rat snake and Vine snake. See Checklist Of Reptile Species

* Fish- 47 species of fish are recorded in the Sanctuary of which seven species are listed as endangered and 17 are endemic to Western Ghats. Some fishes include: Aral, bral, vattudi, tilapia, noori, mooshu, poochutti, kollotty, exyprius and taral. See full listing of Fish.


* Birds- 268 bird species have been recorded in the sanctuary. 134 species are listed as rare and 18 species are endemic to Western Ghats. Lesser adjutant stork, Grey-headed Fish-eagle Peninsular bay owl, Broad-billed roller and Great pied hornbill. Other birds include: Darter, Little Cormorant, Black eagle, Black-capped kingfisher, Great Indian hornbill, and Black woodpecker.


* Butterflies- There are 124 species of butterflies recorded in the sanctuary of which 34 are rare and endemic.

* Amphibians- 23 amphibian species living in the sanctuary include: Ridged toad Bufo parietalis, Common Asiatic toad Bufo melanostictus, Large wrinkled frog Nyctibatrachus major, Small wrinkled frog Nyctibatrachus minor, Rana tigerina, Verrucose Frog Rana keralensis, Rana cyanophlyctis, Boulenger's Indian Frog Rana leptodactyla, Rana limnocharis, Beddome's Leaping Frog Rana beddomii, South Indian Frog Rana semipalmata, Bicoloureol frog Rana curtipes, Bronzed frog Rana temporalis, Reddish burrowing frog Tomopterna rufescens, Parambikulam Wart Frog Parambikulam frog Tomopterna parambikulamana, White-nosed bush frog Philautus leucorhinus, White-spotted bush frog Philautus chalazodes, Kerala warty frog Limnonectes keralensis, Indian skipper frog Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis, Cricket Frog Limnonectes limnocharis, Beddome’s leaping frog Indirana beddomii, Short webbed leaping frog Indirana brachytarsus and the Common frog Micrixalus fuscus. it is near kerala

Flora

The sanctuary has a variety of trees mainly teak, neem, sandalwood and rosewood. Even the oldest ever teak tree the KANNIMARA TEAK exists here. It is about 450 years old and has an unbelievable girth of 6.8 metres and a height of 49.5 metres. It won the Mahavriksha Puraskar given by the Indian Government.

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    Parambikulam

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