The forested areas in Kerala fall into five major category - tropical wet evergreen forests, tropical moist deciduous forests, tropical dry deciduous forests, mountain sub tropical and plantations. These forests are home to around 102 species of mammals (56 of which are indigenous), 476 species of birds, 202 species of freshwater fishes, 169 species of reptiles (139 indigenous) and 89 amphibian (86 indigenous). Kerala also houses around 10,035 plant species which is a staggering 22 percent of India's total.
Also a part of Nilgiri Bio Sphere, the Silent Valley occupies an area of 90 sq km. It lies at a distance of 80 km from Palakkad and 55 km from Coimbatore (in Tamil Nadu). Notwithstanding its name as a Silent Valley, there is actually nothing quiet about this park. Elephants, Lion Tailed Macaques and Tigers, the most common denizens of the park, along with 100 species of butterflies and 400 species of moths and other fauna keep the forest area alive and active.
40 Kms From Thodupuzha in Kerala and 450 - 758 m above sea level is the Idukki Wildlife Sanctuary occupying an area of 77 sq km. Amidst tropical semi-evergreen and deciduous forests, wildlife species like Elephants, Bison, Sambhar, Deer, Wild Dogs, Jungle Cats, Tiger, Wild Boar and reptiles such as Cobra, Viper, Krait can be spotted. The bird species of the park include Jungle Fowl, Myna, Laughing Thrush, Black Bulbul, Peafowl, Woodpecker, Kingfisher etc.
Occupying an area of 25 sq km, the Thattekad Bird Sanctuary is located in the Ernakulam district of Kerala. Designed by a famous ornithologist, Dr Salim Ali, the Thattekad Bird Sanctuary is home to a large number of bird species like Bee-eater, Sunbird, Shrike, Black winged Kite, and the Night Heron. Also around 28 species of animals and nine species of reptile can also be spotted in this sanctuary.
This is one of the most important Wildlife Sanctuary IN Kerala that lies close to the Annamali Sanctuary. The animals and bird species found here include Tigers, Leopards, Wild Dogs, Sloth Bear, Elephants, Wild Boar, Barking Deer, Spotted Deer, Langurs and Macaques. The population of Gaur here is largest in the state of Kerala. The 140 species of birds keep the atmosphere of the park vibrant.
Located 50 kms north east of capital city of Thiruvananthapuram, the Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary is home to Tiger, Panther, Wild Dog, Lion Tailed Macaque, Elephant, Gaur, Sambhar, Barking Deer, Mouse Deer, Wild Boar, Nilgiri Langur, Malabar squirrel etc. The bird species Seen here include water birds like Darter, Little Cormorant, Pied Kingfisher and Egrets. Apart from these, numerous variety of snakes including the King Cobra and Python are frequently spotted in the park. The highlight of the park is the 13 tribes that still reside inside the park premises.